-Prakash Kumar Sah
Migration is as old as the history of main kind. Nepal is a landlocked and agricultural country and is suffering from the problem of under employment. Due to the lack of employment opportunities in country, skilled, semi skilled and unskilled all types of people have shown interest to the foreign employment. To search for better opportunities of employment migration from one country to another country, particularly from developing countries to developed countries is not new for Nepal. There are very few opportunities for employment and to earn the money. So, Nepali people have shown the interest to work outside of the home country. They go abroad for employment and they earn some amount of money and send back to the home country. which is known as remittance income. Remittance income is that portion of income which is transferred by foreign workers (remitters) who are living and working in other countries (especially in the developed countries) typically to their family who are still living in their home countries. Simple meaning of remittance is transfer of money by foreign to his or her home country. The terms remittance is usually limited to monetary and other cash transfer transmitted by migrant workers to their families and communities back home. Nepalese economy is characterized by “Remittance economy “
Remittance donates household income from foreign economics arising mainly from the temporary or permanent movement of people to those economies. Remittance includes cash and no cash items that flow through formal channels, such as via electronic wire or through informal channels such as money or good carried across border. They largely consists of founds and no cash items sent or given by individual, who have migrated to a new economy and become residents there, and the net compensation of border, seasonal other. Short term worker who are employed in an economy in which they are not resident. Slipcover from the financial crisis were quite serve and had a deleterious effect on developed and energy exporting countries the principle source of immigrant remittance the total quantity of remittances dropped in 2020 because of Covid-19, pandemic. The world Bank estimated that remittance flows to developing countries.
Migration of Nepalese people for foreign employment started before early 19th century. Though, the history of remittance In Nepal is not actually recorded. It was started before early nineteenth century when the first Nepalese travelled to ‘lahore’ to Join army of sikh Ruler Ranjit Sing. Formally it was started after Anglo Nepal friendship treaty of 1816 A.D that recruited 3000 Nepalese soldiers in British Gorkha Regiment. Signing of peace and friendship Treaty between India and Nepal in July 1950 A.D was the turning point in the movement of Nepalese workers for employment in India. Many Nepalese people had gone India to work in Cole mines, Guard in richest people’s building and other house hold works . Some of them returned back but most of them settled there. In the beginning stage of migration, they come back to their mother land or they sent or brought money. But the amount of money was not counted as remittances and now day too the remittances from India goes unrecorded. The recorded remittance from India is only countable, which comes in the form of salary and pension to Nepalese people who are working in Indian army and other formal sector .So, the source of remittance to Nepal was that amount which comes from British Army. After that, the second remittance to Nepal was that who are working in Indian army other formal sector. So, the first source of remittance of Nepal was that amount which comes from India by Nepalese people employed in India army. But actual period or amount of remittance was not recorded properly at that time due to insignificant role or unidentified role of remittance amount to the economy. political freedom and economy globalization Have been contribution to an increasingly diversified pattern of destinations by the migrants. Existing poverty limited employment opportunities, deteriorating agricultural productivity, Political instability, are underling ling factor to increase international labor migrant. There are many Villages in Nepal where the labor migration has been established as a culture of community to go abroad for work for a while and return back with some money and experience of placement In different geographical location. Now not only for Nepal but also all over the world the remittance income is one of the most important source of foreign currencies.
National economic development Remittance can contribute significantly to local regional and in migrant sending in reducing poverty as they flows mainly to poor and marginalized families. In recent day, the unemployed youth don’t get job in Nepal. So they are going to foreign countries or an other countries to seek job in order to fulfill basic needs.
This is the fact that remittance has larger benefit to the receiving country in an aggregate level as well as in household level. The volume of remittance inflow in study areas is increasing day by day and season by season. While the remittance income of house hold increase certainly the pattern of consumption will change Remittance has helped to boost economy, reduce poverty provided temporary financial relief to household in study area. The contribution of remittance in the economy moving depends on the role it plays in increasing employment in the economy mainly depends on the rate it plays in increasing employment or the national income. This crucially depend n on the productive use of remittance or investment in the economy. It has been found that 80% of remittance on repaying the debt consumption purpose like purchasing land, more expensive economy for the children expenditure on social function like marriage and other ceremonies etc. only reaming 20% is used productive purpose like small business, investment in the industry, agriculture business etc there fore some author believes that remittance have greater negative impact in the economy including the productive expenditure the demonstration effect of the migrants consequently domestic currency appreciation and inflation. . The human and social aspects of migration are also an important factor which should not be neglected.
Nepal is the landlocked country. Nepal is not developed country. It is moving in the path to reach in the status of the developed country. Nepal as being developing country, most of the people are suffering from the problem of unemployment. They don’t have job opportunity in the country. There are different sectors in the life of people. Among those sector economy is one of the vital sector who are a lot of remittance received from abroad is utilized.
The role of remittance in rural economy of Nepalese is increasing rapidly. It has be found that remittance income is the backbone for economy. But most of its part is used an unproductive sector such as house building, land purchasing etc. It is necessary to know whether people of the study area only spent on such consumption. Most of the research on macro level has shown that more than 80-90 percent of the remittance income is used on the consumption. In the past, the kind of job of Nepalese workers used to get abroad was only three armed force. After restoration of democracy, inter nation job market was opened in the many country. Thus in the new phenomenon of entering the WTO efficient and skilled labor forces is required and diversification in the skill and destination
But most of the remittance income is used in the unproductive field like house building, land purchasing, purchasing of luxurious goods and consumption etc.. Therefore, the remittance increase is not playing its actual role for the development of the country as well as the increased the economy level of the entire country. In this context, it is necessary to know whether people of this area are spending on unproductive fields or some productive field like on economy. What portion of total remittance, remittance holder spend on economy of their sons and daughter.
More investment on economy is a long term capital investment. If investment on economy is found to be low, appropriate to encourage people to invest more n economy. Today, under this pandemic, Nepali economy has been affected including its all dimensions. To get recovery from such situation state and concerned authorities should take a step to manage well in national opportunity sectors. [email protected]